Battlefields of Canada
Mary Beacock Fryer
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Battlefields of Canada encompasses nearly 300 years of history and features sixteen of the most significant Canadian battles as well as some of the most comic or bizarre. Profusely illustrated with sketches, photographs, and detailed maps, each chapter sets the context of the battle in terms of the struggle of which it was part, and then describes the hour-by-hour events. A brief conclusion to each chapter assesses the consequences for the victors and losers, assigning its place in Canadian history. A chronology provides a comprehensive list of every Canadian battle since the early 1600s.
Afterwards the war was fought on three fronts – in the Ohio country and near Lake Erie; through the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the lower part of that river; and on the long-standing warpath along the Richelieu-Champlain-Hudson waterway. Still standing as through it is guarding that route of easy access is the restored Fort Ticonderoga (built by the French as Fort Carillon). The battlefield is in New York State, yet its story belongs as much to Canada as to the United States. Ticonderoga, and Crown Point a short distance north of it where the French built Fort St.
The fort surrendered to Johnson on 25 July 1759, the day after the ambush. Monument to General Montcalm at Fort Ticonderoga. The monument stands in the park close to the road approach to the restored fort. Another place of interest is Fort Michilimackinac, on Mackinac Island, Michigan. The fort was built by the British in 1780, during the American Revolution, to replace a French fort on the mainland that was set low and easy to attack. Like Carillon, Beauséjour and Frontenac, the French Fort Michilimackinac could be fired upon from a nearby height.
Most had been sent from Britain, but the Royal American Regiment was of Provincials. (The 2nd battalion had been raised in New York, and the 3rd in Nova Scotia). Wolfe had used his American rangers as raiders, but he left them stationed along the south shore of the St. Lawrence. He did not think they would be suitable for what he knew would be a European-style battle where steadiness was the key to success. The French force contained the regulars of the five regiments in the garrison, perhaps 2,000 men.
While all this was taking place, Saunders’ ships staged a diversion, which held Montcalm’s attention until nearly daylight. Between 4. 00 and 4. 30 a. m. the lead boats touched the beach at I’Anse au Foulon, rather farther east than Wolfe intended but still very close to the objective. While Delaune’s volunteers moved westwards searching for the path, Howe led his light infantrymen straight at the slope, grasping branches and bushes to pull themselves upwards, a remarkable feat best appreciated by walking east of the Quebec Yacht Club along the lower road.
Interlude Five weeks of apparent stalemate followed, during which Wolfe had his American rangers attack settlements in retaliation for the depredations of armed habitants against his outposts. In the interval, Vice-Admiral Saunders was being very effective, laying the groundwork that would break the deadlock, by demonstrating that he could move his smaller ships upstream past Quebec’s guns. When Montcalm became aware that ships were taking up positions in the vicinity of Cap Rouge, eighteen kilometres above the town, he feared that Wolfe might cut off his sources of supply stored in the ships at Batiscan.