Canada in Cities: The Politics and Policy of Federal-Local Governance (Fields of Governance: Policy Making in Canadian Municipalities)
Katherine A.H. Graham, Caroline Andrew
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In accord with the tenets of path dependency, decisions taken in the formative stage of an institution are deemed to have a disproportional influence on its evolution because they are embedded from the start at the core of its structure (Peters 2005, 61; Pierson and Skocpol 2002; Skocpol 1992). And institutions and the patterned behaviour they foster endure by virtue of the capacity of organizations to socialize individuals to their values and the existence of positive feedback loops grounded in powerful institutional inducements, which reinforce actions compatible with the interests of institutions (Pierson 2000, 492).
A second observation relates to the use of non-governmental organizations in Ontario and British Columbia as delivery vehicles for the distribution of funds and the accountability for the use of those funds. These agencies are not NGOs in the usual sense in that they are associations of municipal governments. But they themselves are not governments, and Ottawa’s placing them in such a central delivery role is an interesting development. Third, a few comments are in order on the much misunderstood earmarking of funds.
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